U.S. International Trade Law and Practice: Is It Consistent With GATT: The U.S.-Norwegian Salmon War

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Marine Affairs


The international trade in fishery products is becoming increasingly important. This is also true for aquaculture products such as Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The U.S. Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry is concentrated in Maine. A consortium of U.S., primarily from Maine, Atlantic salmon aquaculturalists petitioned the U.S. government in 1990 to initiate investigations into whether the Norwegian government was subsidizing the Norwegian Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, and whether the salmon was being sold at less than fair value to the U.S., to the detriment of U.S. producers. The U.S. International Trade Administration and the U.S. International Trade Commission both determined the subject imports were materially injuring a U.S. industry, and imposed antidumping duties and countervailing duties on the import of farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon. These actions were appealed by Norway to the u.S. court of International Trade and to two General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Panels. This study will examine the events, pertinent laws, and outcomes of the above actions. The paper will conclude with an analysis of the possible implications and results of these actions to the U.S. Atlantic salmon farming industry.

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