Transtheoretical Model Constructs’ Longitudinal Prediction of Sun Protection Over 24 Months

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Purpose: This research examined dynamic transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs for adopting sun protection practices. This secondary data analysis pooled four large population-based TTM-tailored intervention studies and examined use of constructs across three groups, organized by longitudinal progress: maintainers, relapsers, and stable non-changers. Methods: A total of 3463 adults, in the USA, who met criteria for unsafe sun exposure at baseline received a TTM-tailored computerized intervention at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The final analytic sample consisted of 1894 participants; the majority were female, White, married, and middle-aged. The three groups were assessed with reliable and valid scales assessing use of TTM constructs at baseline, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. Analyses included a MANOVA followed by a series of ANOVAs, with Tukey follow-up tests assessing differences in use of TTM constructs across the three groups at each timepoint. Results: Findings demonstrated that relapsers and maintainers were similar in their use of most TTM processes of change at baseline, with the exception of Consciousness Raising, Stimulus Control, Reinforcement Management, and Self-Liberation. Conclusions: These findings suggest that although relapsers reverted to unsafe sun practices, their overall greater use of processes of change indicates that their change efforts remain better than that of stable non-changers.

Publication Title

International Journal of Behavioral Medicine