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Women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) experience a heightened prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning has been associated with increased risk for AUD in other populations, including individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether PTSD symptom severity exacerbates the relationship between HPA-axis functioning and AUD. Participants were 151 community women who had experienced physical or sexual IPV in the past 30 days by their current male partners and used any amount of alcohol or drugs. A two-phase emotion induction protocol was utilized: Neutral mood induction followed by randomly assigned negative, positive, or neutral emotion induction. Saliva cortisol samples were obtained immediately following the neutral mood induction (baseline HPA-axis functioning), 20 min following the individualized emotion induction script (HPA-axis reactivity), and 40 min post the emotionally evocative cue (HPA-axis recovery). Findings revealed that PTSD symptom severity moderated the relations between baseline HPA-axis functioning and HPA-axis recovery and log odds of meeting criteria for AUD. Specifically, baseline HPA-axis functioning was positively associated with log odds of meeting criteria for AUD at high (but not low) PTSD symptom severity, whereas HPA-axis recovery was negatively associated with log odds of meeting criteria for AUD at high (but not low) PTSD symptom severity. Results contribute to our understanding of the biological processes involved in the etiology and maintenance of AUD among women experiencing IPV—specifically the prominent role of PTSD symptom severity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)