Document Type

Book Chapter

Date of Original Version



Human Development and Family Science


Although detrimental for any age group, rates of experiencing sexual assault (SA) are found to be the highest among young adults; with nearly 25% of young adult women indicating to have experienced SA at least once in their romantic relationship. SA is also common among adolescents, as 33% of young women between the ages of 11–17 indicated to have been raped. The effects from SA include depression, trauma, and interpersonal distress, which are similar to the effects of other forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) (i.e., physical and psychological aggression), suggesting a covariation between these various forms of aggression. Additionally, a new form of dating violence has emerged; cyber-digital relationship abuse (CDRA). This behavior is commonly expressed via means of social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, & Snapchat) and through digital means (e.g., texting and email) whereby youth and young adults harass, threaten, control, and monitor their partners whereabouts. Recent studies have indicated that CDRA may serve as a precursor to physical violence in dating relationships. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an integrative exploration of sexual, physical, psychological, and CDRA by tracking the progression and concurrence across these various forms of IPV among youth and young adults. Implications for interventions will also be discussed.

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Creative Commons License
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