Date of Original Version
Currently the Chinese government has adopted World Health Organization interim target-1 values as the national ambient air quality standards values. However, the population-based evidence was insufficient, especially for the oldest old (aged 80+). We evaluated the association of fine particulate matters (PM2.5) exposure and incidence of disability in activities of daily living (ADL) in 15 453 oldest old in 886 counties/cities in China from 2002 to 2014 using Cox model with penalized splines and competing risk models to evaluate the linear or non-linear association. After adjusting for potential confounders, a J-shaped association existed between PM2.5 exposure with a threshold concentration of 33 μg/m3, and incident disability in ADL. Above this threshold, the risk magnitude significantly increased with increase of PM2.5 concentrations; compared to 33 μg/m3, the hazard ratio ranged from 1.03 (1.00–1.06) at 40 μg/m3 to 2.25 (1.54–3.29) at 110 μg/m3. The risk magnitude was not significantly changed below this threshold. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure corresponded to a 7.7% increase in the risk of disability in ADL (hazard ratio 1.077, 95% CI 1.051–1.104). Men, smokers, and participants with cognitive impairment might be more vulnerable to PM2.5 exposure. The study provided limited population-based evidence for the oldest old and detected a threshold of 33 μg/m3, and supported that reduction to current World Health Organization interim target-1value (35 μg/m3) and Chinese national ambient air quality standards (35 μg/m3) or lower may be associated with lower risk of disability in ADL.
Lv, Y., Zhou, J., Kraus, V. B., Li, T., Sarnat, J. A., Wang, J., Liu, Y., Chen, H., Brasher, M. S., Mao, C., Zeng, Y., Zheng, T., & Shi, X. (2020). Long-term exposure to PM2.5 and incidence of disability in activities of daily living among oldest old. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 259, 113910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113910
Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113910