Document Type


Date of Original Version





Bangladesh hosts extensive textile manufacturing, for some of which per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) have been used to impart water and dirt repellency, among other things. Textile waste emissions to the atmosphere and discharge into rivers and other bodies of water could present a significant concern for human and ecosystem health, but there is little information on PFAS in Bangladesh. To assess the presence of ionic PFAS and their precursors in air and water from Dhaka, Bangladesh, polyethylene sheets were deployed for 28 days as passive samplers for neutral PFAS in outdoor air and water, while ionic PFAS were measured from discrete water grabs. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) were detected at almost all sites in air and water; the most frequently detected compound was 6:2 FTOH, ranging from below instrumental detection limits (−3in air and from −1in water. Of the ionic PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid dominated in frequency of detection and magnitude, with concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 19.0 ng L−1 in surface waters. The prevalence of 6:2 FTOH and PFBA across sites probably reflects their use in textile manufacturing and could indicate the industry's switch to shorter-chain PFAS alternatives.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

Lohmann_PolyPerfluorinatedAlkyl_2022_Supp.pdf (176 kB)
Supplemental Data

Figures 1-3.pdf (482 kB)
Figures 1-3

Supplemental Tables.pdf (1050 kB)
Supplemental Tables 1-13

Lohmann_PolyPerfluorinatedAlkyl_2022_T1.pdf (120 kB)
Table 1