Chlorine dioxide as a treatment for ballast water to control invasive species: Shipboard testing
Date of Original Version
The efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in eliminating organisms present in estuarine ballast water of a containership was determined under actual operating conditions by comparing the survival of planktonic communities present in waters of treated and control ballast tanks. Sampling was via ballast-tank hatches. The treatment (5mgL-1ClO2 without pre-filtration) delivered by a prototype ClO2-generating system was generally effective against planktonic assemblages, although bacterial communities rebounded after a few days. Regardless of temperature, ClO2 was very effective against phytoplankton; the effect was immediate, without resurgence. Some zooplankters in the ≥50-μm fraction may survive the biocide, especially those able to find refuge within a protective coating (e.g., cysts, resting eggs, and shells) or in sediment. In order to boost efficacy, a pre-filtration step is recommended (now installed as standard equipment) to lower the intake of the ≥50-μm fraction and lessen the challenge posed by this size class. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Marine Pollution Bulletin
Maranda, Lucie, Annie M. Cox, Robert G. Campbell, and David C. Smith. "Chlorine dioxide as a treatment for ballast water to control invasive species: Shipboard testing." Marine Pollution Bulletin 75, 1-2 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.08.002.