3D Sensitivity Kernels With Full Attenuation Computed by a Combination of the Strong Stability Preserving Runge-Kutta Method and the Scattering-Integral Method

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To date developments of seismic attenuation models of the Earth have lagged those of velocity models. This is partly due to difficulties in isolating waveform perturbations caused by attenuation and velocity heterogeneities and partly due to different theories (e.g., ray theory, finite frequency theory) used in most previous and current studies to approximate sensitivity kernels and invert for the attenuation structure. We present in this paper a new method for computing the 3D waveform Fréchet kernels that account for full physical-dispersion and dissipation attenuation. For solving the 3D isotropic anelastic wave equation described by the generalized Maxwell body model, we extend our previously proposed full waveform modeling method in Cartesian coordinates to that in spherical coordinates, which can provide stable numerical solutions even in the presence of strong attenuation. Then, we apply the scattering-integral method for calculating 3D travel time and amplitude sensitivity kernels with respect to velocity and attenuation structures. We demonstrate the accuracy of our forward method and the effectiveness of the implementation of absorbing and free surface boundary conditions through numerical tests. Moreover, by choosing the Northwestern United States region as a realistic example, we verify the accuracy of the computed 3D sensitivity kernels through comparing the waveform measurements with predictions from the kernels. Finally, we discuss the importance of calculating full anelastic sensitivity kernels including both effects of physical dispersion and dissipation, where we specially explore the effect of scattering due to random velocity and attenuation heterogeneities on waveform measurements.

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Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth