Date of Original Version
The methodology for converting the travel time measurement of the inverted echo sounder (IES) into an amplitude of the first baroclinic dynamical mode, A1, is presented. For a Gulf Stream IES record the so-generated A1(t) time series is used to compute a vertical profile of first mode temperature versus time by perturbing a basic state temperature profile. The basic state is constructed by averaging together historical CTD data collected near the IES site. Similarly the first mode amplitudes are used to perturb a basic state dynamic height profile, and, using neighboring IESs, a profile of alongstream geostrophic velocity is obtained at the same location. The resulting IES-derived temperatures and velocities compare favorably to independent current meter results, exhibiting most of the variability observed in both the current meter temperature and alongstream velocity.
Pickart, R. S., & Watts, D. R. (1989). Using the Inverted Echo Sounder to Measure Vertical Profiles of Gulf Stream Temperature and Geostrophic Velocity. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7(1), 146-156. doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(1990)0072.0.CO;2