Development and use of polyethylene passive samplers to detect triclosans and alkylphenols in an Urban estuary

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To be able to use polyethylene passive samplers (PE) in the field, the partitioning constants between PE and water (K PEw) of the compounds examined must be known. The K PEws of triclosan (TCS), methyl-triclosan (MTCS), n-nonylphenol (n-NP), nonylphenol- technical mix (NP-tech), n-octylphenol (n-OP), and t-octylphenol (t-OP) were measured as a function of pH, temperature, andsalinity, and a salt effect was calculated for TCS, n-OP, and t-OP. Log K PEws used for calculating dissolved concentrations were taken from 20 °C studies taking salt into account: 3.42 (TCS), 4.53 (MTCS), 4.20 (n-NP), 3.69 (n-OP), and 2.87 (t-OP). The K PEw of hydroxyl-group containing compounds were strongly affected by pH, whereas MTCS with its methoxy-group was not. Measured K PEws could not be estimated from octanol-water partitioning constants due to the semipolar makeup of the compounds investigated. Instead, a good correlation (K PEw = 0.679×K hdw+1.033, r 2 = 0.984, p = 0.001) was obtained with hexadecane-water partitioning constants (K hdw) predicted from COSMOtherm. During deployments in Narragansett Bay (RI) in the fall of 2009, concentrations of MTCS and t-OP in surface and bottom waters ranged from 40-225 pg L -1 and 3.5-11 ng L -1, respectively. These concentrations are far below EC50 values for rainbow trout. Surface/bottom and bottom/porewater activity ratios werecalculated. These indicated surface waters as the main source of MTCS, while surface water as well as sediments were sources of t-OP. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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Environmental Science and Technology