Use of passive sampling devices for monitoring and compliance checking of POP concentrations in water
Date of Original Version
Background: The state of the art of passive water sampling of (nonpolar) organic contaminants is presented. Its suitability for regulatory monitoring is discussed, with an emphasis on the information yielded by passive sampling devices (PSDs), their relevance and associated uncertainties. Almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) targeted by the Stockholm Convention are nonpolar or weakly polar, hydrophobic substances, making them ideal targets for sampling in water using PSDs. Widely used nonpolar PSDs include semi-permeable membrane devices, low-density polyethylene and silicone rubber. Results and discussion: The inter-laboratory variation of equilibrium partition constants between PSD and water is mostly 0.2-0.5 log units, depending on the exact matrix used. The sampling rate of PSDs is best determined by using performance reference compounds during field deployment. The major advantage of PSDs over alternative matrices applicable in trend monitoring (e. g. sediments or biota) is that the various sources of variance including analytical variance and natural environmental variance can be much better controlled, which in turn results in a reduction of the number of analysed samples required to obtain results with comparable statistical power. Conclusion: Compliance checking with regulatory limits and analysis of temporal and spatial contaminant trends are two possible fields of application. In contrast to the established use of nonpolar PSDs, polar samplers are insufficiently understood, but research is in progress to develop PSDs for the quantitative assessment of polar waterborne contaminants. In summary, PSD-based monitoring is a mature technique for the measurement of aqueous concentrations of apolar POPs, with a well-defined accuracy and precision. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Lohmann, Rainer, Kees Booij, Foppe Smedes, and Branislav Vrana. "Use of passive sampling devices for monitoring and compliance checking of POP concentrations in water." Environmental Science and Pollution Research 19, 6 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s11356-012-0748-9.