The sources of volatile and fluid-mobile elements in the Sunda arc: A melt inclusion study from Kawah Ijen and Tambora volcanoes, Indonesia

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Subduction zone recycling of volatiles (H2O, Cl, S, F) is controlled by the nature of subducted materials and the temperature-pressure profile of the downgoing slab. We investigate the variability in volatile and fluid-mobile trace element enrichment in the Sunda arc using melt inclusion data from Kawah Ijen and Tambora volcanoes, together with published data from Galunggung, Indonesia. Combining our results with data from other arcs, we investigate the mobility of these elements during slab dehydration and melting. We observe correlations between Sr, H2O and Cl contents, indicating coupling of these elements during subduction zone recycling. Sulfur is more variable, and fluorine contents generally remain at background mantle values, suggesting decoupling of these elements from H2O and Cl. Partial melting and dehydration models constrain the source of Sr and the volatiles and suggest that the altered oceanic crust (AOC) is the main source of the hydrous component that fluxes into the mantle wedge, in agreement with thermo-mechanical models. Sediment melt remains an important component for other elements such as Ba, Pb, Th and the LREE. The Indonesian volcanoes have variable concentrations of volatile and fluid-mobile elements, with Kawah Ijen recording higher AOC-derived fluid fluxes (Sr/Nd and H2O/Nd) compared to Galunggung and Tambora. Kawah Ijen has H2O/Ce ratios that are comparable to some of the most volatile-rich magmas from other cold slab subduction zones worldwide, and the highest yet measured in the Sunda arc. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems