Statistical Models of Inertial Sensors and Integral Error Bounds

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Inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers are important components of inertial measurement units (IMUs). Sensor output signals are corrupted by additive noise plus a random drift component. This drift component, also called bias, is modeled using different types of random processes. This chapter considers the random components that are useful for modeling modern tactical-graded MEMS sensors. These components contribute to errors in the first and second integrals of the sensor output. The main contribution of this chapter is the derivation of a statistical bound on the magnitude of the error in the integral of a sensor signal due to noise and drift. This bound is a simple function of the Allan variance of a sensor.

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STEAM-H: Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, Mathematics and Health