Modeling sodium and chloride in surface streams during base flows
Date of Original Version
Sodium and chloride contamination of shallow groundwater can be frequently attributed to three major sources: (1) Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS); (2) road salt application during winter deicing activities; and/or (3) road salt storage. Effluent streams in a large reservoir watershed were sampled during baseflow conditions. Sodium and chloride concentrations were regressed against different land use types including roadway, residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and forest areas. Results indicate that roadway areas are the largest single influence of sodium and chloride concentrations. Data from other watersheds are compared to the developed relationships and agreement is favorable. Additionally, a mass balance is performed and indicates that, typically, roadway deicing activity in the test watershed can potentially introduce far greater amounts of sodium and chloride in the local groundwater than the next greatest influence, residential septic systems.
Journal of Environmental Engineering
Runge, I., R. M. Wright, and D. W. Urish. "Modeling sodium and chloride in surface streams during base flows." Journal of Environmental Engineering 115, 3 (1989): 608-619. https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cve_facpubs/353