Document Type


Date of Original Version



Civil and Environmental Engineering


We report a preliminary assessment of ferrate [Fe(VI)] for the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD), focused on precipitation of metals (i.e., iron [Fe] and manganese [Mn]) and subsequent removal. Two dosing approaches were studied to simulate the two commercially viable forms of Fe(VI) production: Fe(VI) only, and Fe(VI) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Subsequent metal speciation was assessed via filter fractionation. When only Fe(VI) was added, the pH remained99% when only NaOH was added, indicating that oxidation by Fe(VI) did not play a significant role when added. The Fe(III) and Al(III) particles were relatively large, suggesting probable success in subsequent removal through sedimentation. Resultant Mn-oxide particles were relatively small, indicating that additional particle destabilization may be required to meet Mn effluent goals. Ferrate seems viable for the treatment of AMD, especially when sourced through onsite generation due to the coexistence of NaOH in the product stream. More research on the use of Fe(VI) for AMD treatment is required to answer extant questions.