Prostate-specific antigen levels of ≤4 and >4 ng/mL and risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with biopsy Gleason score 9 to 10 prostate cancer
Date of Original Version
Background: Defining workup beyond usual clinical practice that may improve treatment outcomes in men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of ≤4 ng/mL (vs >4 ng/mL) and Gleason score (GS) 9 to 10 prostate cancer (PC) remains to be determined. Methods: Between February 25, 1992, and February 25, 2016, 17,632 men with clinical T1-4 PC with a biopsy GS of 6 to 10 underwent radical prostatectomy at a single academic center. Multivariable Fine and Gray regressions were used to evaluate the risk of prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) with an interaction model evaluating the prognostic significance of PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL versus PSA > 4 ng/mL among men with PC with a biopsy GS of 9 to 10 versus ≤8, with adjustments made for the time-dependent use of adjuvant and/or salvage radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in addition to known PC prognostic factors. Results: There was a significant interaction in men with a biopsy GS of 9 to 10 versus ≤8 and a PSA level of ≤4 ng/mL versus >4 ng/mL (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-8.08; P =.046). Specifically, among men with a biopsy GS of 9 to 10 and a PSA level of ≤4 ng/mL versus >4 ng/mL, there was a significantly higher rate of PCSM (AHR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.19-5.67; P =.017); however, there was no significant difference in the risk of PCSM in men with a biopsy GS ≤ 8 and a PSA level of ≤4 ng/mL versus >4 ng/mL (AHR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.46-1.78; P =.771). Moreover, the time-dependent use of postoperative ADT was also associated with an increased risk of PCSM (AHR, 10.76; 95% CI, 6.88-16.81; P <.0001). Conclusions: Some men with PSA ≤ 4 ng/mL and a biopsy GS of 9 to 10 may have pathologic or genetic variants that make them less amenable to a cure with current standards of care. Additional workup assessing for small cell, neuroendocrine, and genetic variants should be considered.
Kim, Daniel W., Ming Hui Chen, Jing Wu, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Derya Tilki, and Anthony V. D’Amico. "Prostate-specific antigen levels of ≤4 and >4 ng/mL and risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with biopsy Gleason score 9 to 10 prostate cancer." Cancer 127, 13 (2021): 2222-2228. doi:10.1002/cncr.33503.