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Objective: This study compared, in treatment and control groups, the phenomena of coaction, which is the probability that taking effective action on one behavior is related to taking effective action on a second behavior.

Methods: Pooled data from three randomized trials of Transtheoretical Model (TTM) tailored interventions (n = 9461), completed in the U.S. in 1999, were analyzed to assess coaction in three behavior pairs (diet and sun protection, diet and smoking, and sun protection and smoking). Odds ratios (ORs) compared the likelihood of taking action on a second behavior compared to taking action on only one behavior.

Results: Across behavior pairs, at 12 and 24 months, the ORs for the treatment group were greater on an absolute basis than for the control group, with two being significant. The combined ORs at 12 and 24 months, respectively, were 1.63 and 1.85 for treatment and 1.20 and 1.10 for control.

Conclusions: The results of this study with addictive, energy balance and appearance-related behaviors were consistent with results found in three studies applying TTM tailoring to energy balance behaviors. Across studies, there was more coaction within the treatment group. Future research should identify predictors of coaction in more multiple behavior change interventions.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.