Document Type


Date of Original Version



Communication Studies


The paper aims to develop a model of communication based on the thought of I Ching. The dialectical and dialogical interaction between yin and yang serves as the foundation of the model development, which leads to the conceptualization of communication as an interdetermining process in which interactants develop a mutually dependent relationship through the exchange of symbols. The model stipulates five characteristics of human communication: holistic, hierarchical, interconnected, creative, and harmonious. In addition, the holistic and dynamic nature of communication is delineated based on the model from three perspectives: forces of human communication, forms of the movement of human communication, and the outcome of human communication. It is concluded that while a universal model can be used to describe the universal phenomenon of human communication, the I Ching model reflects potential differences of value or moral orientations toward communication between Chinese and Westerners. Hence, the model can be used to better understand Chinese behaviors from an emic perspective in the future research. [China Media Research. 2009; 5(3):72-81]