In vitro glycation of human serum albumin by dihydroxyacetone and dihydroxyacetone phosphate

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Amino groups in proteins can non-enzymatically react with reducing sugars to generate a structurally diverse group of compounds referred to as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The in vivo formation of AGEs contributes to some of the complications of diabetes including atherosclerosis, cataract formation, and renal failure. The formation of AGEs is dependent on both sugar and protein concentrations. Increases in temperature, pH, and exposure time of sugars to the proteins also play a significant role in the rate of AGE formation. This study focuses on the use of a combination of analytical techniques to study the in vitro AGE formation of HSA with dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a ketose generated during glycolysis, and its dephosphorylated analog, dihydroxy acetone (DHA), commonly used as a browning reagent in skin tanning preparations. The extent of AGE formation was affected by DHAP and DHA concentrations and by the duration of HSA exposure to these glycating agents. Increases in temperature and pH sped the glycation process and enhanced the formation of the AGEs of HSA. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopic data provided a reliable result to evaluate the extent of the AGE formation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications