Paper spray ionization–high-resolution mass spectrometry (PSI-HRMS) of peroxide explosives in biological matrices

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Mitigation of the peroxide explosive threat, specifically triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), is a priority among the law enforcement community, as scientists and canine (K9) units are constantly working to improve detection. We propose the use of paper spray ionization–high-resolution mass spectrometry (PSI-HRMS) for detection of peroxide explosives in biological matrices. Occurrence of peroxide explosives and/or their metabolites in biological samples, obtained from urine or blood tests, give scientific evidence of peroxide explosives exposure. PSI-HRMS promote analysis of samples in situ by eliminating laborious sample preparation steps. However, it increases matrix background issues, which were overcome by the formation of multiple alkali metal adducts with the peroxide explosives. Multiple ion formation increases confidence when identifying these peroxide explosives in direct sample analysis. Our previous work examined aspects of TATP metabolism. Herein, we investigate the excretion of a TATP glucuronide conjugate in the urine of bomb-sniffing dogs and demonstrate its detection using PSI from the in vivo sample. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry