Failure Mechanism of Graphite/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cells at High Voltage and Elevated Temperature

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The failure mechanism of graphite/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells cycled at 25°C and 55°C have been analyzed by electrochemical methods and ex-situ surface analysis of the electrodes. Graphite/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells cycle well at 25°C, but have rapid capacity fade upon cycling at 55° C. Independent electrochemical analysis of anodes and cathodes extracted from cells cycled at 55° C suggest that both electrodes have significant capacity loss, although the cathode capacity can be recovered with longer charging times. Ex-situ surface analysis of the cathode with SEM reveals that the bulk cathode particles and the cathode laminate are retained while XPS confirms the presence of a cathode electrolyte interface composed of the decomposition products of the electrolyte. Ex-situ analysis of the anode reveals a thick anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), anode delamination, and the presence of Mn. The results suggest that both the anode and the cathode contribute to performance loss in graphite/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells. © 2013, The Electrochemical Society, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Journal of the Electrochemical Society