Fluoroethylene carbonate and vinylene carbonate reduction: Understanding lithium-ion battery electrolyte additives and solid electrolyte interphase formation

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We have synthesized the products of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) via lithium naphthalenide reduction. By analyzing the resulting solid precipitates and gas evolution, our results confirm that both FEC and VC decomposition products include HCO2Li, Li2C2O4, Li2CO3, and polymerized VC. For FEC, our experimental data supports a reduction mechanism where FEC reduces to form VC and LiF, followed by subsequent VC reduction. In the FEC reduction product, HCO2Li, Li2C2O4, and Li2CO3 were found in smaller quantities than in the VC reduction product, with no additional fluorine environments being detected by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. With these additives being practically used in higher (FEC) and lower (VC) concentrations in the base electrolytes of lithium-ion batteries, our results suggest that the different relative ratios of the inorganic and organic reduction products formed by their decomposition may be relevant to the chemical composition and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase formed in their presence.

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Chemistry of Materials