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The beneficial role of lithium bis(trimethylsilyl) phosphate (LiTMSP), which may act as a novel bifunctional additive for high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4(LNMO)/graphite cells, has been investigated. LiTMSP is synthesized by heating tris- (trimethylsilyl) phosphate with lithium tert-butoxide. The cycle performance of LNMO/graphite cells at 45 °C significantly improved upon incorporation of LiTMSP (0.5 wt %). Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis suggests that the trimethylsilyl (TMS) group in LiTMSP can react with hydrogen fluoride (HF), which is generated through the hydrolysis of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) by residual water in an electrolyte solution or water generated via oxidative electrolyte decomposition reactions to form TMS fluoride. Inhibition of HF leads to a decrease in the concentration of transition-metal ion dissolution (Ni and Mn) from the LNMO electrode, as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, the generation of the superior passivating surface film derived by LiTMSP on the graphite electrode, suppressing further electrolyte reductive decomposition as well as deterioration/re-formation caused by migrated transition metal ions, is supported by a combination of chronoamperometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, a LiTMSP-derived surface film has better lithium ion conductivity with a decrease in resistance of the graphite electrode, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, leading to improvement in the rate performance of LNMO/graphite cells. The HF-scavenging and film-forming effects of LiTMPS are responsible for the less polarization of LNMO/ graphite cells enabling improved cycle performance at 45 °C.

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ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces





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