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There is significant interest in the development of rechargeable high-energy density batteries which utilize lithium metal anodes. Recently, fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) have been reported to significantly improve the electrochemical performance of lithium metal anodes. This investigation focuses on exploring the synergy between LiDFOB and FEC in carbonate electrolytes for lithium metal anodes. In ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolytes, LiDFOB is optimal when used in high salt concentrations, such as 1.0 M, to improve the electrochemistry of the lithium metal anode in Cu||LiFePO4 cells. However, in FEC electrolytes, LiDFOB is optimal when used in lower concentrations, such as 0.05–0.10 M. From surface analysis, LiDFOB is observed to favorably react on the surface of lithium metal to improve the performance of the lithium metal anode, in both EC and FEC-based electrolytes. This research demonstrates progress toward developing feasible high-energy density lithium-based batteries.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Zachary L. Brown is a graduate student in the Department of Chemistry.



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