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We report a multifunctional nanotherapeutic platform based on liposomes loaded with drug and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) coated with a gold nanoshell synthesized using a polyelectrolyte (layersome) soft templating technique. IONs and gold nanoshells were used to provide combined hyperthermia and triggered drug release via radio frequency (RF) or near-infrared (NIR) stimulation. IONs and the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) were coencapsulated inside liposomes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, anionic phosphatidylglycerol, and cholesterol lipids. Coating the magneto-liposomes with positively charged poly-l-lysine enriched the interface with gold anions to form a dense gold nanoshell and protected the structure against deformation and DOX cargo release during shell formation. After modification with thiol-terminated polyethylene glycol, intracellular delivery and release of DOX from the nanostructures was examined in A549 human lung cancer cells. The nanostructures retained their DOX cargo and remained in the cytosol after cellular uptake. Only when triggered by RF or NIR stimuli did the nanostructures release DOX, which then entered the cell nucleus. Compared to the single photothermal therapy or radio frequency treatment, the carriers with combined DOX and RF or NIR stimulation displayed higher therapeutic effect on A549 cells.

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ACS Applied Bio Materials