Alternative matrices for therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive agents using LC-MS/MS
Date of Original Version
Immunosuppressive drugs used in solid organ transplants typically have narrow therapeutic windows and high intra- and intersubject variability. To ensure satisfactory exposure, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) plays a pivotal role in any successful posttransplant maintenance therapy. Currently, recommendations for optimum immunosuppressant concentrations are based on blood/plasma measurements. However, they introduce many disadvantages, including poor prediction of allograft survival and toxicity, a weak correlation with drug concentrations at the site of action and the invasive nature of the sample collection. Thus, alternative matrices have been investigated. This paper reviews tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods used for the quantification of immunosuppressant drugs utilizing nonconventional matrices, namely oral fluids, fingerprick blood and intracellular and intratissue sampling. The advantages, disadvantages and clinical application of such alternative mediums are discussed. Additionally, sample extraction techniques and basic chromatography information regarding these methods are presented in tabulated form.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Ghareeb, Mwlod, and Fatemeh Akhlaghi. "Alternative matrices for therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive agents using LC-MS/MS." Bioanalysis 7, 8 (2015). doi: 10.4155/bio.15.35.