Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Prediction of Ethanol Concentration-Time Profile in Different Organs

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A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach was used to simulate the concentration-time profile of ethanol (EtOH) in stomach, duodenum, plasma and other tissues upon consumption of beer and whiskey under fasted and fed conditions. Methods: A full PBPK model was developed for EtOH using the advanced dissolution, absorption and metabolism (ADAM) model fully integrated into the Simcyp Simulator® 15 (Simcyp Ltd., Sheffield, UK). The prediction performance of the developed model was verified and the EtOH concentration-time profile in different organs was predicted. Results: Simcyp simulation showed ≤ 2-fold difference in values of EtOH area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in stomach and duodenum as compared to the observed values. Moreover, the simulated EtOH maximum concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax) and AUC in plasma were comparable to the observed values. We showed that liver is exposed to the highest EtOH concentration, faster than other organs (Cmax = 839.50 mg/L and Tmax = 0.53 h), while brain exposure of EtOH (AUC = 1139.43 mg·h/L) is the highest among all other organs. Sensitivity analyses (SAs) showed direct proportion of EtOH rate and extent of absorption with administered EtOH dose and inverse relationship with gastric emptying time (GE) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vss). Conclusions: The current PBPK model approach might help with designing in vitro experiments in the area of alcohol organ damage or alcohol-drug interaction studies.

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Alcohol and Alcoholism