Date of Original Version
Like vaccines, biologic proteins can be very immunogenic for reasons including route of administration, dose frequency and the underlying antigenicity of the therapeutic protein. Because the impact of immunogenicity can be quite severe, regulatory agencies are developing risk-based guidelines for immunogenicity screening. T cell epitopes are at the root of the immunogenicity issue. Through their presentation to T cells, they activate the process of anti-drug antibody development. Preclinical screening for T cell epitopes can be performed in silico, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. Importantly, screening for immunogenicity is complicated by the discovery of regulatory T cell epitopes, which suggests that immunogenicity testing must now take regulatory T cells into consideration. In this review, we address the application of computational tools for preclinical immunogenicity assessment, the implication of the discovery of regulatory T cell epitopes, and experimental validation of those assessments.
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