Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Psychology


Clinical Psychology



First Advisor

James O. Prochaska


Little is known about the mechanisms behind relapse to different pre-Action stages of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) among ex-smokers. This study provides a preliminary investigation of the possible role static and dynamic variables, including demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and severity, and TTM effort variables, have in two ways: 1) As potential predictors of relapse to Precontemplation/Contemplation stages vs. Preparation; and 2) as potential predictors of relapse to any pre-Action stage vs. maintenance at follow-up. The study sample was derived from an integrated dataset of four TTM population-based smoking cessation interventions conducted in the United States. Unlike forward movement between adjacent stages, participants appeared to be equally likely to relapse to all three pre-Action stages. Being part of a treatment group was a salient predictor of being a maintainer at follow-up. Scoring higher on certain components of the Situational Temptations and Processes of Change measures differentiated those who relapsed from those who maintained at follow-up. Implications towards improving interventions and research concerning backward stage transitions are discussed.