Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Community Planning (MCP)


Community Planning

First Advisor

Farhad Atash


This study aimed to compare the travel patterns of working women with transportation demand management (TDM) programs to determine how women are affected by these programs. In order to accomplish this objective, this study reviewed the literature on working women's travel patterns and TDM and then analyzed them together. A comprehensive review of working women's travel patterns suggests that they are different from those of working men: women work closer to home than men do, they use public transportation more, are more likely to chain trips on their work commute and commute to suburban employment centers more than men. TDM programs utilize various strategies and incentives, some of which may not be appropriate for women's distinct commuting behavior and may sometimes impose financial burdens and reductions in convenience, especially those that impose financial constraints on SOY users. Women who have greater financial and domestic burdens, for example single mothers, are most greatly affected by these types of strategies.

This study has identified the major factors associated with women's experience with TDM as domestic and childcare responsibilities, and occupational segregation. Although differences do exist between women in terms of ethnicity, income, marital status, and presence of children, these findings seem to apply to all working women. The findings of this paper suggest that, if TDM programs are implemented with flexibility and evaluated with consideration for all employees, negative effects might be mitigated. Also, strategies that address linked trips are beneficial to the program's success in achieving an increase in air quality and treating all employees fairly.



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