Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Civil and Environmental Engineering


Environmental Engineering


Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Ali Shafqat Akanda


The mitigation of global warming is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, fossil fuels are being replaced with renewable energies. The increased share of solar and wind energy poses a complex challenge to the electricity grid due to the temporal variability in energy generation. Water supply is an energy intensive sector and entails a great potential to apply measures to synchronize the system’s energy demand to the renewable energy supply.

In this study, the potential of implementing demand side management into the water supply system operation is assessed with the goal of increasing the utilization of on-site variable renewable energy. Digital-twin modelling of different simulation scenarios provides a tool to comparatively evaluate the reference scenario and the proposed scenarios with integrated demand side management measures and integration of variable renewable energies. The challenge of this study lies in the goal of increasing renewable energy self-sufficiency and consequentially reducing greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining the physical integrity of the water within the system.

The comparative evaluation shows that by integrating on-site variable renewable energies and demand side management measures, a degree of energy self-sufficiency of 78.5 % could be achieved, resulting in a cut of carbon emissions by 69.4 %. The water pressure in the system showed no increase while the average retention time could be reduced by 16 %. The results reveal the untapped potential to use water supply systems to foster the integration of renewable energies and thus reduce the associated environmental impact.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.