Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts in Psychology



First Advisor

Wayne F. Velicer


The current study validated the translation of TTM measures for physical activity in a Slovakian sample, and compared the TTM constructs to an existing U.S. sample. A majority of the Slovak and the U.S. participants were in Precontemplation, Contemplation, and Preparation Stages. The distribution of Slovaks across Contemplation and Preparation Stages was significantly different compared to the U.S. distribution. The distribution of Slovaks and the U.S. participants across Precontemplation and Action/Maintenance Stages was the same. The basic structure of the translated TTM measures (Stages of change, Decisional Balance, and Situational Self-efficacy) held for the Slovak sample and replicated the existing structure of the TTM constructs. The measurement models were invariant across the USA and Slovak samples. The relationship between the Stages, the Pros and Cons scales, Self-efficacy, and Family Support replicated the pattern observed across multiple samples and behaviors. The Cons of exercising exceeded the Pros in Precontemplation and Contemplation Stages, while the Pros exceeded the Cons of exercising in Action/Maintenance. Self-efficacy increased across stages in a non-linear pattern. Family support increased linerly across stages. Relationship between physical activity and the Stages of change also replicated the pattern previously observed for exercise. Strenuous and moderate physical activities differentiated between the Stages in both samples in that individuals in pre-Action Stages engaged significantly less in moderate and strenuous physical activities. The amount of strenuous and moderate physical activity increased from Precontemplation to Action/Maintenance with a small increase from Contemplation to Preparation followed by large increases from Preparation to Action/Maintenance. Slovak sample was assessed on activities of daily living using IPAQ. The results indicated that individuals in early Stages engage significantly more in activities of daily living compared to individuals in later Stages, while individuals in later Stages engage more in structured types of activities.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.