Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Biological and Environmental Sciences (MSBES)


Sustainable Agricultura and Food Systems


Plant Sciences and Entomology

First Advisor

Steven Alm


Native and introduced bees were attracted to and captured in commercially available Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, traps baited with floral lure components (geraniol, eugenol, phenethyl propionate [3:7:3]). Studies in Rhode Island found that Bombus impatiens Cresson was significantly more attracted to geraniol alone and as a component in a floral lure blend than to either eugenol or phenethyl propionate alone. Xylocopa virginica L. was more selective in being primarily attracted to traps baited with higher amounts of geraniol in 2016. In 2016, 32 baited and eight unbaited traps captured 856 B. impatiens and 124 X. virginica in 11 days of trapping in Rhode Island. In 2017, a total of 3,749 bees were captured in 124 traps in Rhode Island over 56 days and 90 in 32 traps in Ohio over 42 days. Removing geraniol from the floral lure reduced the bee capture but did not significantly reduce the Japanese beetle capture in 2017 and 2018. In 2018, a total of 708 bees were captured in 100 traps in Rhode Island over 56 days, 401 bees were captured in 68 traps in Tennessee over 60 days, and 34 bees were captured in 32 traps in Ohio over 58 days. Removing geraniol from Trécé dual lures significantly reduced bee captures in Rhode Island in 2018. Green, black, brown, and red traps captured significantly fewer bees than clear or standard yellow vane and green cage traps in 2018 in Rhode Island and Tennessee. The results suggest that using all green traps with a lure composed of eugenol and phenethyl propionate and the Japanese beetle male sex pheromone can effectively capture Japanese beetles while minimizing the bycatch of bees.



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