Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Chemical Engineering (MSChE)


Chemical Engineering

First Advisor

Arijit Bose


The role of dilution by artificial hard water on nanostructures present in body wash samples provided by Procter and Gamble were investigated using time-resolved cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Samples with and without perfume were examined at 10X, 20X, and 50X dilution. Micellar samples transformed to mostly unilamellar vesicles at 50X dilution, in contrast to the micelle to monomer transition seen in typical samples. At lower dilutions, a change in morphology from spherical to wormlike micelles was observed. For lamellar samples, lower dilution ratios show tightly packed multilamellar vesicles, while higher dilution ratios show more dispersed vesicles with less bilayers. Nanostructural transformations upon dilution were attributed to changes in curvature/packing parameters, which occurred due to dilution with hard water and addition of perfume. The systems experience changes in curvature in order to maintain equilibrium. Also, the addition of perfume in the lamellar samples caused an increase in the number of bilayers present in multilamellar vesicles, because of its role in increasing the packing parameter in the system.



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