Pharm.D. (six years)

Second Major

Business Administration (General)


Kristina Ward

Advisor Department

Pharmacy Practice (PHP)


Daniel Carpenter

Advisor Department

Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures




Greek; Roman; Treatments; Natural Products; Safety; Efficacy


Classical Greek and Roman civilizations survived for centuries and have greatly influenced the civilizations that have succeeded them. The treatments of diseases of both civilizations changed over time as physicians and philosophers such as Hippocrates and Galen developed a better understanding of the human body. Some of the treatments for disease used in ancient Greece and Rome remain in use today.

This project was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of classical Greek and Roman medicinal treatments and compare them to modern day treatments. The first step of the project was to identify classical diseases with telltale symptoms that could be identified through ancient texts. The search involved identifying major contributors to Greek and Roman medicine and then reading translations or summaries of their surviving works.

To supplement the literature found, internet sources were consulted. Next, treatments were gathered using a similar search method as previously described. Afterwards, evidence was gathered using natural product databases, clinical trials, observational reports and other primary literature. The evidence gathered would either support or refute the use of the ancient medication in modern practice. Finally, tertiary resources were consulted to research the modern medicines used for the same disease.