Cross-validation of transtheoretical model smoking cessation measures in Chicago WIHS women smokers with and at risk for HIV

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People with and at risk for HIV have high rates of smoking, increasing their morbidity and mortality. Effective cessation interventions are needed for this group. Transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored interventions have demonstrated efficacy, but measures need cross-validation in this population. TTM cessation measures were evaluated in women smokers with and at risk for HIV (N = 111) from Chicago Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Confirmatory factor analyses evaluated measurement models. MANOVAs examined relationships between constructs and stage subgroups. For decisional balance, the two-factor uncorrelated model was best (X2(20)= 13.96; comparative fit index [CFI], 1.0; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .00), with good (pros a = .78) and fair (cons α = .55) four-item alphas. The one-factor temptations model (α = .90) showed reasonable fit (X2(18)= 80.22; CFI = .89; RMSEA = .177). Processes of change subscales had fair to good two-item alphas (α = .49-.77) and fit a 10-factor fully correlated model (X2(125)= 222.72; CFI = .88; RMSEA = .084). MANOVAs by stage of change replicated expected patterns for the pros, overall temptations, and two process subscales with medium-sized effects (X2= .06-.18). Contrary to expectations, no differences by stage were found for cons or temptation negative affect subscales. The structures of these TTM measures replicated with good internal and external validity, except for the cons, which needs refinement. Negative affect temptations was structurally sound, but did not vary by stage group potentially reflecting this sample's moderate depression levels and/or their reliance on smoking to deal with negative affect. Results support the use of most TTM measures in research and tailored interventions to increase smoking cessation among women smokers with and at risk for HIV and highlight the importance of managing negative affect in cessation materials targeting this group.

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Translational Behavioral Medicine