Title

Risk and protective factors for opioid misuse in American Indian adolescents

Document Type

Article

Date of Original Version

1-1-2020

Abstract

Background: American Indian (AI) youth have disproportionately high rates of both heroin and other opioid misuse and recently have seen a large increase in negative outcomes due to opioid misuse. To address the dearth of research on within-group risk factors for heroin and other opioid misuse in AI adolescents, the goal of the present study is to explore the influence of peer, family, and school factors on opioid use among AI youth. Methods: Participants (n = 3498, 49.5 % female, Mage = 14.8) were drawn from a large school-based sample of AI youth living on or near reservations, across six geographic regions, between 2009 and 2013. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire regarding substance use and related factors. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to examine the role of peer, family, and school-related factors on past-month and lifetime heroin and other opioid misuse. Results: Greater peer substance use (OR = 1.14, p<0.001), lower family disapproval of use (OR =.98, p = 0.01), and lower school performance (OR =.90, p = 0.01) were associated with greater likelihood of lifetime opioid misuse. Greater peer substance use (OR = 1.05, p<0.001) and lower family disapproval of use (OR =.99, p = 0.04) were associated with greater likelihood of past month opioid misuse. Greater peer substance use was the only variable significantly related to greater likelihood of lifetime (OR = 1.15, p<0.001) or past month heroin use (OR = 1.02, p = 0.047). Conclusions: Findings highlight the need for interventions and offer potential factors to consider in developing interventions for heroin and/or other opioid misuse among AI adolescents.

Publication Title

Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Volume

206

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