Levels of Attribution and Change (LAC) Scale: Development and measurement
Date of Original Version
This article describes the construction and initial validation of the Levels of Attribution and Change (LAC) Scale, a 60-item instrument that assesses the levels and loci of causal attributions about a self-selected problem. A rationalinternal scale construction method was employed in which judges' ratings and principal component analyses resulted in 10 robust scales: Spiritual Determinism, Biological Inadequacies, Bad Luck, Environmental Difficulties, Maladaptive Cognitions, Familial Conflicts, Interpersonal Conflicts, Intrapersonal Conflicts, Chosen Lifestyle, and Insufficient Effort. The 10 components accounted for 67.5% of the total variance. Internal consistency coefficients ranged between .79 and .92 (M =.87). A cluster analysis yielded 10 distinct subject profiles, which resemble common attributional patterns. Second-order analyses revealed two underlying dimensions labeled Internal-Dispositional and External-Situational. It is concluded that the LAC Scale is an internally consistent, multidimensional inventory with considerable potential use, although additional normative and validity data are needed before operational use. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings and possible applications of the instrument are discussed. © 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Cognitive Therapy and Research
Norcross, John C., James O. Prochaska, and Martin Hambrecht. "Levels of Attribution and Change (LAC) Scale: Development and measurement." Cognitive Therapy and Research 9, 6 (1985): 631-649. doi: 10.1007/BF01173022.