Cluster subtypes within stage of change in a representative sample of smokers

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In this paper a three-level conceptualization of approaches to matching self-help behavior change strategies to individuals is presented based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Two of the model's intervention approaches, tailoring to Stage-of-Change and creating completely individualized interventions, have already been developed and implemented in previous research. A third intervention approach, in between stage-tailored and individualized, is targeting subtype groups within each Stage of Change. The subtype targeted intervention approach is in the initial development stage of empirically determining and validating the stage subtypes. Three studies are presented which investigate stage subtypes within a representative sample of 4,144 smokers in the Precontemplation, Contemplation, and Preparation Stages of Change. Within each Stage-of-Change study, two cluster analyses were performed using the Pros, Cons, and Situational Temptations from the Transtheoretical Model to establish cluster replicability. Cluster solutions were externally validated using the 10 Processes of Change and 2 smoking behavior variables. Four distinct subtypes were found in Precontemplation and Contemplation, and five subtypes were found in Preparation. These subtypes closely replicate subtypes previously found in a convenience sample of smokers and provide strong evidence for the existence of subtypes within the first three Stages of Change. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Publication Title

Addictive Behaviors