Publication Date


GSO Technical Report Number


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License.


The Inverted Echo Sounder (IES) is an ocean bottom-moored instrument that measures the vertical acoustic travel time (VATT) round-trip from the seafloor to the sea surface and back. The VATT varies principally due to changes in the temperature profile of the water column, making the IES well-suited for monitoring changes in temperature structure and dynamic height (baroclinic signal). Currently, the Model 6.2, a combined IES, data-logger, and acoustic release, with measurements of bottom pressure and temperature (PIES) and optional measurements of current speed and direction (CPIES, with attached Aanderaa Doppler current sensor) is produced at URI/GSO. Data are processed in situ and are available (optional) remotely by an acoustic telemetry link. In addition to the IES-measured baroclinic signals, barotropic near-bottom pressure variations may be measured with the optional pressure sensor. A report was written in 1991 describing IES data processing [Fields et al., 1991]. Since that report, significant improvements have been made to both IES hardware and software, warranting an update of the IES data processing. The report by Kennelly et al. [2007] documents the standard processing steps contained in IESpkg 3, which has been used since the early 2000s, for IES/PIES/CPIES Models 6.1 and 6.2 at URI/GSO. More recently, IESpkg 4 was developed to allow more flexibility in the processing steps and data outputs, and to process the Fast PIES versions that sample 96 travel times each hour. This report documents the processing steps in IESpkg 4 and it repeats as much of the original text of Kennelly et al. [2007] as is still applicable. A separate document, Inverted Echo Sounder User's Manual, IES Model 6.2, describes the IES hardware and instrument configuration