Date of Original Version
The statistical mechanics of particles with shapes on a one-dimensional lattice is investigated in the context of the s = 1 Ising chain with uniform nearest-neighbor coupling, quadratic single-site potential, and a magnetic field, which supports four distinct ground states: | ↑↓↑↓···), |◦◦···) , | ↑↑ ···), | ↑ ◦ ↑ ◦···). The complete spectrum is generated from each ground state by particles from a different set of six or seven species. Particles and elements of the pseudovacuum are characterized by motifs (patterns of several consecutive site variables). Particles are floating objects that can be placed into open slots on the lattice. Open slots are recognized as permissible links between motifs. The energy of a particle varies between species but is independent of where it is placed. Placement of one particle changes the open-slot configuration for particles of all species. This statistical interaction is encoded in a generalized Pauli principle, from which the multiplicity of states for a given particle= combination is determined and used for the exact statistical mechanical analysis. Particles from all species belong to one of four categories: compacts, hosts, tags, or hybrids. Compacts and hosts find open slots in segments of pseudovacuum. Tags find open slots inside hosts. Hybrids are tags with hosting capability. In the taxonomy of particles proposed here, “species” is indicative of structure and “category” indicative of function. The hosting function splits the Pauli principle into exclusion and accommodation parts. Near phase boundaries, the state of the Ising chain at low temperature is akin to that of miscible or immiscible liquids with particles from one species acting as surfactant molecules.
Liu, D., Müller, G., & Karbach, M. (2011). Taxonomy of particles in Ising spin chains. Physical Review E, 84(2), 021136. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.021136
Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.84.021136