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We applaud Thomas Van Boeckel and colleagues1 for their large analysis of antibiotic consumption in 71 countries. A 36% increase in use of antibiotics worldwide, 76% of which was in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, is a concerning finding. In Europe and the USA, practitioners are increasingly aware of the importance of infection control and antimicrobial stewardship. However, 50% of antimicrobials, irrespective of setting, are used inappropriately.2,3 We agree that most increases in global antibiotic consumption are probably caused by inappropriate use and that coordinated efforts to improve antimicrobial use internationally are desperately needed.