Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology


School Psychology



First Advisor

Gary Stoner


The current study investigated the extent to which eight elementary schools in one cooperative education district implemented the five essential components of Response to Intervention (RtI), and explored the relationship between fidelity of implementation and student reading outcomes measured by oral reading fluency (ORF). Various RtI models exist because there is no single method to implement RtI appropriately. The majority of available studies examining fidelity of RtI implementation have focused on the individual components of RtI. However, when implemented as intended, RtI is a coherent system of coordinated components. Consequently, it is important to study the implementation of RtI as a whole model in addition to the individual components and its’ relationship with student outcomes. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the extent of implementation and to characterize differences between the schools and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences in student outcomes between elementary schools. Finally, the researcher made qualitative inferences to explore the relationship between fidelity of implementation and student reading outcomes measured by ORF. Results from the current study revealed that fidelity of RtI implementation varied between elementary schools despite similar professional development and supports around RtI practices. In addition, results from the current study have preliminary implications supporting the value of infrastructure and supports and fidelity and evaluation within the RtI model.



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