Macronutrient composition and increased physical activity modulate plasma adipokines and appetite hormones during a weight loss intervention

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Background: We have shown previously that in overweight premenopausal women, changes in macronutrient composition and increasing the number of steps walked per day favorably affect body composition and plasma lipid profiles. As a follow-up, we evaluated the effect of moderate carbohydrate intake and increased physical activity on inflammation and regulation of appetite. Methods: Seventy premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 37kg/m 2 participated in a 10-week weight loss intervention program consisting of the following macronutrient energy distribution: 40% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 30% protein, in addition to a progressive increase in the number of steps taken per day. Plasma adiponectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), leptin, and ghrelin levels were assessed at baseline and after 10 weeks. Results: Subjects reduced body weight by 4.5%, waist circumference (WC) by 6.4%, and trunk fat by 4.6%. Plasma insulin and insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) were reduced after 10 weeks (p<0.01). Plasma adiponectin was increased by 11% (p<0.05), and ICAM-1 levels were decreased (p<0.05) after 10 weeks. A negative correlation was found between changes in insulin and changes in adiponectin between baseline and 10 weeks (r=-0.397, p<0.01), indicating a role of adiponectin in increasing insulin sensitivity. In addition, plasma ghrelin levels were increased by 17% (p<0.001), indicating a signal for increased appetite associated with weight loss. Conclusions: These studies indicate that weight loss interventions involving moderate changes in dietary carbohydrate and increases in physical activity favorably affect insulin sensitivity and decrease inflammation. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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Journal of Women's Health