Using focus groups for instrument development: Application of the transtheoretical model to fruit and vegetable behaviors of older adults

Document Type


Date of Original Version



The purpose of this focus group research was to identify themes related to fruit and vegetable consumption in older adults that could be used as the basis for instrument development. The Trans- theoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) was used as a framework to guide this research. Adults over the age of 60 completed a food frequency screener, and were designated into “low” and “high” fruit and vegetable intake groups. Participants responded to some general as well as stage-specific questions, dependent upon group. Data were analyzed by two independent researchers, and level of agreement was consistently high. Data reduction was accomplished by identification of inductively derived themes. The derived themes made conceptual and operational sense, and were used as a basis for development of quantitative measures related to fruit and vegetable consumption of older adults. Instrument development represents an exciting application of focus group research that deserves increased attention. © 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly