Development and Validation of Green Eating Behaviors, Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy Scales in College Students
Date of Original Version
Objective: To develop and validate an instrument to assess environmentally conscious eating (Green Eating [GE]) behavior (BEH) and GE Transtheoretical Model constructs including Stage of Change (SOC), Decisional Balance (DB), and Self-efficacy (SE). Design: Cross-sectional instrument development survey. Setting/Participants: Convenience sample (n = 954) of 18- to 24-year-old college students from a northeastern university. Analysis: The sample was randomly split: (N1) and (N2). N1 was used for exploratory factor analyses using principal components analyses; N2 was used for confirmatory analyses (structural modeling) and reliability analyses (coefficient α). The full sample was used for measurement invariance (multi-group confirmatory analyses) and convergent validity (BEH) and known group validation (DB and SE) by SOC using analysis of variance. Results: Reliable (α > 7), psychometrically sound, and stable measures included 2 correlated 5-item DB subscales (Pros and Cons), 2 correlated SE subscales (school [5 items] and home [3 items]), and a single 6-item BEH scale. Most students (66%) were in Precontemplation and Contemplation SOC. Behavior, DB, and SE scales differed significantly by SOC (P <.001) with moderate to large effect sizes, as predicted by the Transtheoretical Model, which supported the validity of these measures. Conclusions and Implications: Successful development and preliminary validation of this 25-item GE instrument provides a basis for assessment as well as development of tailored interventions for college students.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Weller, Kathryn E., Geoffrey W. Greene, Colleen A. Redding, Andrea L. Paiva, Ingrid Lofgren, Jessica T. Nash, and Hisanori Kobayashi. "Development and Validation of Green Eating Behaviors, Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy Scales in College Students." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 46, 5 (2014): 324-333. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2014.01.002.