Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Marine Affairs


There is no way to measure, on a global scale, the pollution dumped directly into the oceans, let alone all the tens of thousands of particulates, toxics, and gaseous substances are added each day to the atmosphere surrounding the New York Bight. The aim of this paper is to develop a user fee framework for the ocean dumping of municipal sludge. Such a proposal requires a radical departure from the standards and enforcement approach of today's legislation. The ocean dumping of municipal sludge, while accounting for only a small percentage of the total waste dumped into the Bight, has proven deleterious environmental and economic consequences.