Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Marine Affairs


It is now clear that the capacity of the oceans to accept some of the by-products of civilization is limited. The oceans can no longer be the world's sink, it we are to maintain the ecological viability of the biosphere. The dangers of the present situation are compounded by the difficulties in defining "marine pollution." Today's concern with pollution and its effects upon our way of life requires that the impact of ships on the marine environment be considered in order to minimize the risk that waterborne cargoes, particularly petroleum products, present to the ecology.