Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Marine Affairs


The inshore fisheries of Peninsular Malaysia are intensively exploited on the east coast and over-exploited on the west coast. Fishing effort and investment need to be reduced, particularly on the west coast. This is important in order to make harvest more economically efficient in terms of manpower and capital and to conserve the resources. Since 1981 Malaysia has adopted a Fisheries Licensing Policy addressed to (1) the elimination of the competition and ensuing conflict between the traditional fishermen and minitrawler fishermen in inshore waters; (2) the prevention of over-exploitation of the fishery resources in the inshore waters; and (3) the restructuring of the ownership pattern of fishing units in accord with the New Economic Policy. One of the main strategies employed is allocation of fishing grounds through zones, so that areas close to shore are reserved for the smaller vessels. Another main strategy is the regulation of fishing effort through a license limitation to control excess capacity taking into account of the socio-economic and political aspects.