Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Marine Affairs


Most of the waste products of human society end up in the oceans and the number and quantities of pollutants entering the oceans have been increasing at exponential rates. Recognition of these trends has resulted in expansion of international environmental attention to include sources of marine pollution other than vessels. Source, in this sense, refers to the pathway through which pollutants reach the sea. Land-based sources accounts for the vast bulk of the pollutants reaching the oceans. Effective protection of the marine environment, therefore, must include regulation of land-based sources of marine pollution.